Instructor: Dr. Ian Howell
Time and Location: Tuesdays 12-2 JH367
Office Hours: By appointment
VOICE SCIENCE: ADVANCED PERCEPTION AND ANALYSIS
- Titze, Ingo, Principles of Voice Production; Miller, Donald, Resonance in
Singing; Bozeman, Kenneth, Practical Vocal Acoustics
- Course packet of additional readings and multimedia DVDs
- Access to a computer (Mac or PC) and the Internet
- Access to the NEC Voice and Sound Analysis Laboratory
Vocal Pedagogy Majors must take VC565 and VC566 first. No prerequisite for
students taking as an elective.
Not open to freshmen or sophomores; open to all other graduate and
This course introduces students to the physical, acoustical, and perceptual
principles that form the basis of our current scientific understanding of voice production
and sound perception. Topics covered include basic anatomy, fluid dynamics, vocal fold
oscillation, sound propagation, formants and the non-linear source/filter model, and the
frequently paradoxical psychoacoustics of singing voice perception. Students will explore
this material through readings, research projects and presentations, and experimentation
in the NEC Voice and Sound Analysis Laboratory. Primary texts include Principles of
Voice Production by Ingo Titze, Resonance in Singing by Donald Miller, and Practical
Vocal Acoustics by Kenneth Bozeman. 2 Credits
As the PRIMARY OBJECTIVES of this course, students will:
- Gain a broad knowledge base of the current state of scientific study of the singing
and speaking voice
- Develop an understanding of the way that the human body’s physiological,
acoustical, and perceptual constraints dictate successful approaches to singing,
predict problematic areas of the voice, and explain the characteristic sound of an
- Hone their perceptual skills and gain the ability to hear a given spectral envelope
in terms of its constituent sub-timbres
- Further explore an area of research interest and cultivate writing and presentation
- Gain fluency with the analysis software used in the NEC Voice and Sound
- Contemplate the way in which complex scientific information must be mediated
in the teaching studio
- Contemplate the way in which the scientific method is applicable to subjective
elements of voice training
- Readings will be assigned most weeks, and students will be expected to come to
class prepared to discuss them. Students will be responsible for giving short
introductory presentations and leading discussions based on the readings (counts
toward classroom participation). Students will also participate in an online
discussion forum each week based on the readings.
- Weekly listening exercises will be given most weeks.
- Students will find one article related to voice science from the past ten (10) years in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, The Journal of Voice, or The Journal of Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology. (All indexes should be visible to the public online; I can help you get access to these articles when you find one you like.) Students will present the article in class (20 minutes) utilizing whatever multimedia is useful. Students will hand in a 500 word summary of the thesis, methodology, and conclusions, due on the day of the presentation.
- Students will find one doctoral level dissertation published in the past ten (10) years on a voice science topic (either DMA or PhD). (Our library has online access to ProQuest Theses and Dissertations. Students will present the dissertation in class (25 minutes) utilizing whatever multimedia is useful. Students will hand in a 750 word summary of the thesis, methodology, and conclusions, due on the day of the presentation.
- Most weeks, students will spend an hour in the NEC Voice and Sound Analysis Lab, and will submit specific software files to instructor via email demonstrating specific technical competencies with the lab equipment
- Students will write a final paper (approximately 2,000 words) on a research area
related to the material, and present on one aspect of their paper (15 minutes). A proposal is due one month prior to the date of the presentation. Topics must be approved by the instructor.
There is no final exam.
Classroom participation (includes online discussions about readings, lab competency files, and other presentations) 40%
Final paper 40%
Final 15-minute presentation 20%
Technical Requirements for all Written Work
All written assignments must be submitted as either a WORD or PAGES file.
Please use a 12pt font, either Helvetica, Times, or Times New Roman, double-spaced.
Include your name, my name, the course number, and the date in a header. Include a title
for your assignment. Use the Chicago Manual of Style (short version by Kate Turabian)
when preparing your work.
Submit all work electronically in a WORD (.doc or .docx) or PAGES file to:
All written work must be submitted by 11:59 pm on the designated due date.
Please feel free to turn in any assignment ahead of time. I will allow you one rewrite
(based on my comments) for a higher grade. A half grade will be subtracted for each day
following the due date. You are required to have access to your school email, which
automatically time and date stamps your emails. Plan ahead to turn your materials in on
time. Communicate with me early if there is going to be an issue.
This class follows the academic integrity policy of this conservatory, and
plagiarism could lead to expulsion. All direct quotes, all paraphrases, and all borrowed
ideas must be cited. A reader a century from now should be able to reconstruct your
research process and find her way to all of your sources.
Class Attendance and Participation
You are expected to come to all classes on time, having completed all
assignments, ready to discuss the material. If you must miss class for an approved reason
(meaning a medical emergency or performance), make sure to document it with the Dean
of Students. Otherwise your participation grade will suffer. If you miss more than three
classes for any reason, you should talk to me about your future in the course.
Have a question or concern? Talk with me early on.
Preliminary Course Calendar (Subject to Change)
Unit One: Acoustics and Sound Propagation
1. Generation and Propagation of Sound
2. The Source-Filter Theory of Vowels
Readings from Bozeman, Titze, and Miller
Unit Two: Voice Instrumentation
1. Spectrographic analysis
2. Voice synthesis
3. Teaching tools
4. Airflow measurement
5. Electroglottographic analysis
Readings from Titze
Unit Three: Psychoacoustics, Registration, and Advanced Listening
1. The absolute spectral timbre of sine waves and notch filtered noise
2. The nature of spectral envelope coherence
3. Warm/Clear/Bright—predictable sub-timbres of the singing voice
4. Auditory masking
5. Multiple missing fundamentals
6. Ear training
7. Registration versus register
8. Passive versus active vowel modification
Readings from Howell, Bozeman, and Cogan
Ear training protocols by Howell
Unit Four: The Mechanics of the Singing Body
1. Basic Anatomy of the Larynx
2. Biomechanics of Laryngeal Tissue
3. Fluid Flow in Respiratory Airways
4. Vocal Fold Oscillation
Readings from Titze
Arneson, Christopher. Voice Repertoire from a Developmental Perspective. Deleware:
Inside View Press, 2015.
Coffin, Berton. Historical Vocal Pedagogy Classics. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1989.
Doscher, Barbara M. The Functional Unity of the Singing Voice. London: Scarecrow,
Feldenkrais, Moshé. Awareness Through Movement: Health Exercises for Personal
Growth. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.
Garcia II, Manuel. A Complete Treatise on the Art of Singing. The editions of 1847 and
1872 edited and translated by Donald V. Paschke. New York: Da Capo Press,
Garcia, Manuel. Exercises and Method for Singing. London: T. Boosey & Co., 1824.
Hines, Jerome. Great Singers on Great Singing. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982.
McCoy, Scott. Your Voice: An Inside View. Delaware: Inside View Press, 2012.
McKinney, James C. The Diagnosis and Correction of Vocal Faults. Nashville: Genevox
Music Group, 1994.
Miller, Donald. Resonance in Singing. Princeton: Inside View Press, 2008.
Miller, Richard. On the Art of Singing. New York: Oxford University, 1996.
___________. The Structure of Singing: System and Art in Vocal Technique. New York:
Reid, Cornelius L. Voice: Psyche and Soma. New York: J. Patelson Music, 1975.
Howell Proposed Vocal Pedagogy Courses, 17 January 2016
Smith, W. Stephen. The Naked Voice. Oxford: Oxford University, 2007.
Sundberg, Johan. The Science of the Singing Voice. DeKalb: Northern Illinois
Titze, Ingo R. Principles of Voice Production. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
Titze, Ingo R., and Katherine Verdolini Abbott. Vocology: The Science and Practice of
Voice Habilitation. Salt Lake City, UT: National Center for Voice and Speech,
Vennard, William. Singing: The Mechanism and the Technique. New York: Carl Fischer,
Additional videos and media from The National Center for Voice and Speech and Inside